Andrology

Andrology is a field of medicine that deals with the study of male anatomy and physiology, diseases of the male genital area and methods for their effective treatment. It arose at the junction of several disciplines at once: urology, sexopathology, endocrinology. For the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the genitourinary sphere, the patient is usually first referred to a urologist. However, if his problems are related to the reproductive system, then it is more reasonable to consult an andrologist right away. Often, such a doctor can additionally act as a venereologist or dermatologist.

The difference between a urologist and an andrologist

At the appointment with a urologist come with complaints of the genitourinary system. Depending on his qualifications and the presence of a surgical profile, he can either engage in conservative treatment or perform surgical intervention to identify diseases of the kidneys or urinary tract. The competence of the urologist is also the prostate gland, bladder, urethra. He is involved in the treatment of adenoma, prostatitis, cystitis, urolithiasis, etc.

Andrologist specializes strictly in diseases of the reproductive system. His main specialization is the preservation of male health for many years. Most often, patients complain to the andrologist about the following problems:

  • Sexual impairment (sexual dysfunction).
  • Androgen deficiency (excess hormones in the body or lack of their production).
  • Male infertility of any etiology.
  • Problems with an erection (for example, its decrease or pain).
  • Pathology of the prostate gland.
  • Endocrine diseases of the male reproductive system.
  • Sexually transmitted diseases.

"Male climax" - physiological processes in the body of a man that can cause malfunctions in the cardiovascular or endocrine system.

Andrologist is also responsible for androgenital surgery. It is used when it is necessary to restore sexual function or to correct internal or external defects of the genitals.

What diseases does the andrologist treat?

Andrologist studies the problems of male health in a multifaceted and differentiated manner. That is why the range of diseases that he treats is much broader than that of a urologist. Here are just a small part of them:

  • Erectile dysfunction - the presence of deviations that are associated with erectile dysfunction. It is expressed in a complete or partial inability to achieve or maintain an erection necessary in order to have sexual intercourse. Such a disease reduces the quality of life of a man.
  • Infertility is a man’s lack of ability to fertilize, despite normal sexual intercourse.
  • Peyronie's disease is a fibrous seal that leads to curvature and deformation of the penis, disrupting the shape of the penis during an erection.
  • Metabolic syndrome - develops if the body reduces the production of male hormones (over time, this leads to metabolic disorders in the body, which can be followed by infertility, obesity and a number of chronic diseases).

Causes of disease

Erectile dysfunction occurs in about a third of men aged 18-59 years. In most cases, it is not an independent disease. More often, its presence indicates more serious health problems. So, a typical complication is erectile dysfunction in diabetes. Often, deviations that are associated with erectile dysfunction occur for psychological reasons. In addition, the cause may be:

  • Neurological disorders;
  • Low levels of male hormones;
  • Defects in the anatomy of the penis;
  • Wrong lifestyle, bad habits.

Now let's talk about male infertility. In previous years, the responsibility for infertility was often attributed to a woman. Recently, thanks to more frequent examinations of husbands and, in particular, laboratory analysis of seminal fluid, it turned out that in about half of sterile marriages, the cause of infertility is not a woman, but a man.

Various types of testicular abnormalities belong to congenital forms of infertility:

  • primary hypogonadism, that is, congenital underdevelopment of the genital organs,
  • congenital absence of both testicles (extremely rare malformation)
  • cryptorchidism (undescended testes in the scrotum) and some other, more rare congenital disorders of the testicular structure.

Acquired infertility may be the result of exposure to various adverse factors on the spermatogenic testicular epithelium:

  • infectious diseases
  • eating disorders
  • prolonged body cooling
  • X-rays or radiation.

According to modern data, in about one fourth of infertile men, the cause of this defect is transferred infectious mumps (mumps), complicated by bilateral orchitis.

Peyronie's disease. In many men, the erect penis is slightly curved, but with Peyronie’s disease, the penis is much more curved than normal. Inflammation of the internal tissues of the penis leads to the formation of fibrous (scar) tissue. Since scar tissue does not stretch during an erection, the erect penis bends, making it difficult or impossible for the penis to penetrate the vagina during intercourse. It is not completely clear what exactly causes the development of these scar structures. One of the most convincing theories relates their appearance to a penile injury that has occurred in the past, sometimes long before the onset of the disease. With this disease, an erection can become painful, and sometimes even disappear if a fibrous plaque spreads to deeper tissues of the penis.

How is the examination with an andrologist

During the initial examination, the andrologist collects an anamnesis, that is, forms a medical history, studying the patient's outpatient card, and learns from him about complaints about the state of male health. This is followed by a visual examination of the genital organs, as well as palpation (palpation) of the prostate gland through the wall of the rectum.

Depending on the results of the examination and patient complaints, the doctor may prescribe additional tests and studies:

  • The study of prostate juice.
  • Smear from the urethra.
  • Spermogram.
  • Ultrasound examination of the genitals.
  • PCR diagnostics, with the help of which sexually transmitted diseases are detected.

Based on the analyzes, the andrologist consults the patient and, if necessary, develops a therapy regimen, taking into account his age and individual characteristics of the body. He also decided to conduct surgery.

If necessary, a medical examination of the patient is carried out or dynamic monitoring is conducted. The duties of the andrologist also include maintaining the patient under artificial insemination programs, discharge of sick leave and preparation of primary medical documentation.

Service record

Specialists

All specialists
Rasner
Pavel Ilyich

Head of the Urology Clinic, Deputy Chief Physician for Urology, Urologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD, professor

Kamalov
Armais Albertovich

Chief Consultant in Urology, Urologist

Academician, professor, Doctor of Sciences, PhD

Osmolovsky
Boris Evgenyevich

Head of the Department of Urology, Urologist

PhD

Tereshchenko
Suren Alexandrovich

Doctor urologist-andrologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD

Ahvlediani
Nika Dzhumberovich

Urologist, andrologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD

Gomberg
Mikhail Alexandrovich

Dermatovenereologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD, professor