The transfer of the embryo to the uterine cavity is the last step in the in vitro fertilization procedure. In case of successful implantation of the embryo, the process of its development proceeds in a natural cycle. However, the period of introduction of a diploid cell into the wall of the uterus largely depends on its quality and the readiness of the endometrium for conception.
Briefly about implantation and early development of the embryo
During the post-implantation period, many women want to be convinced of the success of IVF and therefore resort to using "home" pregnancy tests. Doctors recommend taking tests for hCG no earlier than 2 weeks after fertilization.
To understand what caused the recommendations of reproductive specialists, one should understand what happens to the woman's body immediately after the transfer of the embryo into the uterine cavity:
- Implantation - takes 40 hours after transplanting a diploid cell into the cavity of the reproductive organ. In the gastrulation phase, the embryo is introduced into the loosened endometrium in two stages: the first is adhesion (adhesion), the second is immersion (invasion). In the second phase, the embryo destroys the cellular structure of the uterine mucosa until it comes into contact with the blood capillaries;
- The formation of a two-layer embryo - lasts no more than 3 days, starting from the 7th day after the embryo transfer. In the process of active development, two embryonic petals are formed - ectoderm and endoderm. They represent the shield from which the body of the fetus subsequently develops;
- Collapse of the endoderm - extraembryonic tissues form a sac, and the cavities between the cells of the mesenchyme are filled with fluid. In the process of their fusion, an exocole is formed around the fetus.
The final introduction of the embryo into the endometrium occurs on the 7th day after the transfer. And only during this period, the embryonic petals begin to produce hCG - human chorionic gonadotropin. However, in the first week of pregnancy, its serum concentration is too low, so the test most often gives a negative result.
10 days after conception - signs of pregnancy
Already 10-12 days after implantation of the embryo, the first signs of pregnancy appear, which is associated with an increase in the plasma concentration of hCG. Early symptoms of gestation include:
- pulling pain in the abdomen;
- fast fatiguability;
- swelling of the mammary glands;
- frequent urination;
- violation of sleep and wakefulness;
- frequent mood swings;
- early toxicosis.
After the final implantation of the embryo into the wall of the uterus, a cord is formed between it and the woman's body, through which the fetus receives all the nutrients necessary for development: protein, oxygen, vitamins, amino acids, etc. Due to the high intake of vitamins by the embryo, the well-being of the patients may deteriorate. To prevent termination of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, it is recommended to change the diet and refrain from excessive physical exertion.
10 day after embryo transfer - sensations
Most women do not notice significant changes in well-being until the 30th day of gestation. However, patients planning a pregnancy treat any transformations in the body with great attention. Some of them have the following characteristic symptoms already on the 10th day after embryo replanting:
- soreness of the mammary glands;
- hypersensitivity of the nipples;
- metallic taste in the mouth;
- a feeling of heaviness in the small pelvis;
- mucous vaginal discharge;
- increased basal temperature;
- fast fatiguability.
In the first days after the completion of the IVF procedure, women complain of the appearance of brown vaginal discharge. This process is considered normal and indicates the implantation of the embryo into the endometrium.
10 DPP - test
A negative result of a pharmacy pregnancy test does not yet indicate an unsuccessful IVF procedure. The embryo begins to produce hCG starting from the 7th day after the transplant. After 3 days, an insufficient amount of the hormone accumulates in the body, which cannot be determined using a "home" test.
The analysis for the content of hCG should be carried out only by a reproductive specialist on an outpatient basis. For this, venous blood is taken, after which the serum concentration of chorionic gonadotropin is determined. A high level of the hormone indicates the onset and normal course of pregnancy.
10 DPP five days
Five days - a blastocyst that forms on the 5th day after fertilization of the egg. Within five days, the ovum is cultivated in an incubator in an artificial nutrient medium. Then it is planted in the uterine cavity, after which the results of hCG are awaited.
The likelihood of successful implantation of the blastocyst into the prepared (loosened) endometrium increases if replanting is performed during the period of the implantation window. The peak of endometrial cell receptivity falls on days 20-22 of the menstrual cycle. In the case of controlled stimulation of ovulation, the maximum ability of the uterine mucosa to interact with the embryo falls on days 19-20 of the cycle.
10 DPP five days - test
Surely it is possible to evaluate the effectiveness of IVF only 2 weeks after the blastocyst infusion. Starting from the 7th day after the procedure, the outer shell of the embryo (chorion) begins to produce a specific hormone. The hCG test should be performed 14 days after in vitro fertilization.
It should be borne in mind that the onset of pregnancy is evidenced by the hCG indicator above 29 mIU / L. Standard test strips can be both high and low sensitivity. Some of them indicate pregnancy already at 10 mIU / L, while others - only at 150 mIU / L and above.
10 DPP five days - hCG
Normally, the production and growth of hCG occurs exclusively during gestation. This method allows you to determine the onset of pregnancy at the earliest stages of its development. In non-pregnant women, the concentration of the hormone in the blood does not exceed 5 mIU / L, while in pregnant women it can reach 250-300 mIU / L.
HCG indicators on the 10th day after embryo replanting:
- the minimum concentration is 8 mIU / l;
- average concentration - 18 mIU / l;
- the maximum concentration is 26 mIU / l.
Due to the fact that the hCG analysis is carried out on the 14th day after the IVF procedure, the pregnancy test is considered positive if the hormone level is in the range from 30 to 170 mIU / L. Any deviations from the norm may indicate an abnormal development of the fetus and the pathological course of gestation. Only a fertility specialist can interpret the dynamics and serum concentration of hormones in the body of an expectant mother.
It is almost impossible to determine the onset of pregnancy after IVF using a test strip. This is due to the low concentration of hCG in the blood serum and the high inaccuracy of the test itself. Normally, the hormone indicator at this stage of pregnancy should be in the range from 8 to 26 mIU / L.