Abnormal uterine bleeding usually occurs when hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle is disturbed. This problem is most often observed at the beginning of childbearing age and before its end, when the female body is being rebuilt.
The typology was developed relatively recently and includes three types of AMK:
- chronic - observed in the patient for more than six months and does not have a clear periodicity;
- acute - bleeding requiring emergency medical care due to large blood loss; may develop as a result of untimely treatment of chronic AMK or for other reasons;
- intermenstrual (MMK) - observed between periods and in medicine is called "metrorrhagia".
The reasons for the development of pathology
The causes of abnormal bleeding are divided into functional and organic. Most often, pathology develops in the presence of the following accompanying factors:
- hormonal disruptions leading to a drop in progesterone levels;
- trauma resulting from mechanical damage to the organs of the reproductive system;
- infectious infections;
- endocrine system disorders affecting the liver and kidneys;
- high levels of estrogen, which is not balanced by progesterone, which is especially important for the female body during ovulation;
- myoma, adenomyosis, polyps;
- diseases that cause bleeding disorders;
- improperly selected hormonal contraceptives.
Menopause may be the cause of abnormal bleeding. During this period, the mucous membranes of the walls of the uterus and vagina are severely depleted. This is due to low levels of hormone production. If a problem is identified at this age, it is important to urgently undergo an examination by a gynecologist, since bleeding can be a symptom of endometrial cancer or a precancerous condition.
Indirect causes of AMK include stress at work or at home, overwork and excessive physical activity, a sharp change in climate, strict diets or prolonged fasting and taking certain medications.