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Abnormal bleeding

Abnormal uterine bleeding usually occurs when hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle is disturbed. This problem is most often observed at the beginning of childbearing age and before its end, when the female body is being rebuilt.

AMK classification

The typology was developed relatively recently and includes three types of AMK:

  • chronic - observed in the patient for more than six months and does not have a clear periodicity;
  • acute - bleeding requiring emergency medical care due to large blood loss; may develop as a result of untimely treatment of chronic AMK or for other reasons;
  • intermenstrual (MMK) - observed between periods and in medicine is called "metrorrhagia".

The reasons for the development of pathology

The causes of abnormal bleeding are divided into functional and organic. Most often, pathology develops in the presence of the following accompanying factors:

  • menopause;
  • hormonal disruptions leading to a drop in progesterone levels;
  • trauma resulting from mechanical damage to the organs of the reproductive system;
  • infectious infections;
  • endocrine system disorders affecting the liver and kidneys;
  • high levels of estrogen, which is not balanced by progesterone, which is especially important for the female body during ovulation;
  • myoma, adenomyosis, polyps;
  • anovulation;
  • diseases that cause bleeding disorders;
  • improperly selected hormonal contraceptives.

Menopause may be the cause of abnormal bleeding. During this period, the mucous membranes of the walls of the uterus and vagina are severely depleted. This is due to low levels of hormone production. If a problem is identified at this age, it is important to urgently undergo an examination by a gynecologist, since bleeding can be a symptom of endometrial cancer or a precancerous condition.

Indirect causes of AMK include stress at work or at home, overwork and excessive physical activity, a sharp change in climate, strict diets or prolonged fasting and taking certain medications.

Symptoms and Diagnosis

The symptoms of AMK can vary depending on the underlying cause. The following signs of pathology should alert you:

  • frequent and heavy menstruation, the cycle is broken and lasts less than 24 days;
  • discharge with blood, which is observed in girls before the onset of the first menstruation;
  • blood from the vagina after having intercourse;
  • non-systematic bleeding in the periods between periods;
  • dizziness and feeling of weakness;
  • pale skin and anemia.

A number of diagnostic procedures are performed to identify the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. Be sure to appoint an unscheduled gynecological examination and study the anamnesis. From laboratory tests you need to go through:

  • UAC;
  • hormone test;
  • blood biochemistry;
  • hemostasiogram;
  • cytomorphology of the epithelium.

Hardware diagnostics provides for the passage of ultrasound of the pelvic organs. If indicated, the patient is referred for hysteroscopy.

If, according to the results of the diagnosis, it is revealed that the problem is not of a gynecological nature, then it is necessary to get advice from an adjacent or narrow-profile specialist.

AMK treatment

The method of treating pathology directly depends on the intensity of bleeding and the general well-being of the patient. If the blood loss is large, then it must be urgently stopped and the condition of the body stabilized. Only then can you start diagnostic procedures.

With an insignificant AMK, on the contrary, they first look for its cause and only then develop a treatment regimen. Therapy can be conservative, with the use of drugs (vasoconstrictor, hormonal drugs), but, if necessary, they also resort to surgical intervention.

When choosing a technique and then adjusting the therapy, the degree of the positive effect of drugs, the presence of side effects of treatment, the individual characteristics of the patient: age, health status, interest in conceiving a child in the future are taken into account.

Service record

Specialists

All specialists
Kappusheva
Laura Magomedovna

Deputy chief doctor in gynecology, obstetrician-gynecologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD, professor

Shevchuk
Alexei Sergeyevich

Oncogynecology consultant, obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Pivovarova
Svetlana Victorovna

Head of the outpatient department, gynecologist, endocrinologist

PhD

Chernaya
Oksana Yuryevna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Makarischev
Alexei Yakovlevich

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Mukhina
Elena Valeryevna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Ozdoeva
Zara Salmanovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist, doctor of ultrasound diagnostics

PhD

Manukyan
Lusine Andranikovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Pegova
Maria Romanovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Kozlova
Karina Olegovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Kalmykova
Natalya Vladimirovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Zarubenko
Natalya Borisovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Shilina
Elena Alexandrovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Smirnova
Angelica Yuryevna

Obstetrician-gynecologist, endocrinologist

PhD

Bizhanova
Dilara Aminovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Doctor of Sciences, PhD, professor

Sargsyan
Anna Vartanovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

Breusenko
Valentine Grigoryevna

Gynecologist obstetrician

Doctor of Sciences, PhD, professor

Ibragimova
Zarema Almanovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist

PhD

Dukhina
Tatiana Alexandrovna

Obstetrician-gynecologist, ultrasound doctor

PhD