Doctor's supervision is mandatory for bearing a healthy child. Maintaining a normal pregnancy involves six to seven visits to the gynecologist, including:
- measurement of pulse, weight, height, body mass index, abdominal girth, blood pressure;
- assessment of the risks of developing fetal pathology;
- listening to the heartbeat of the future baby;
- examination of the mammary glands;
- the choice of the route of delivery;
- recommendations for childbirth and breastfeeding.
Laboratory examinations are mandatory: general and biochemical blood tests, general urine and protein analysis, determination of the blood group and Rh factor, checking the level of glucose in the blood. Also, blood is taken for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C. Swabs are examined for oncopathology, as well as STDs.
Of the instrumental research methods, ultrasound is used. It is safe for the baby and mom, while allowing you to see how the fetus grows and develops. Doppler ultrasonography helps to establish the adequacy of blood supply.
In the first half of pregnancy, two types of ultrasound are used:
- Vaginal. The uterus, appendages, fetus and placenta are examined, the thickness of the cervix is measured.
- Transabdominal. The doctor drives the ultrasound sensor along the belly of the expectant mother.
Starting from the second half of pregnancy, vaginal ultrasound is performed according to indications.
With the help of ultrasound, not only the growth of the child is assessed, but also the condition of the woman's kidneys. During pregnancy, pyelonephritis can be hidden.
Another important examination is CTG, or cardiotocography. Two sensors are attached to the woman's stomach, and a remote control with a button is given to her hand. It should be pressed when movement is felt. The method shows the child's activity, heartbeat, the strength of uterine contractions. On it you can see the lack of oxygen, a decrease in the frequency of movements, and readiness for childbirth. The duration of the study is 5-10 minutes if the baby is awake, and up to 40 if he is asleep. In this case, you need to get up, move around, eat sweets, otherwise the results will not reflect the real picture.
If the pregnancy is pathological, then, in addition to routine examinations, additional ones are prescribed. Most often this is the determination of serum iron, thyroid hormones, urine culture with the determination of the pathogen and its sensitivity to drugs.