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About the department
The mammology department of the K+31 clinic allows the patient to receive all the necessary services in one place, in a comfortable environment and to constantly be in touch with his attending physician. The department is equipped with modern equipment for ultrasound, mammography, contrast mammography, tomosynthesis, as well as breast MRI.
Mammography is a standardized procedure consisting of 4 images, called projections, two views of each breast: a cranio-caudal or frontal view and a medio-lateral or oblique view. Mammography is performed using specialized x-ray equipment. For the study, a specific technique is used that requires compression of the mammary gland for 5-10 seconds in order to reduce radiation exposure to the mammary gland, as well as to obtain high-quality images.
This examination method is also performed in specialized offices. During the study, standard projections identical to digital mammography are used. The most important difference is the moving X-ray tube, which rotates around the breast and takes several images, which are then reconstructed into slices in 1mm increments. Tomosynthesis can be performed both independently and in combination with standard mammography. In the process of performing a standard mammography, the radiologist decides whether it is necessary to perform an additional study in the tomosynthesis or ultrasound mode. This decision is based on the individual X-ray structure of the breast, the availability of various examination methods, and the characteristics of the changes found during the standard mammography.
This is a mammogram using iodinated contrast medium. The contrast agent helps to find new blood vessels that appear with the development of a malignant tumor. Your healthcare provider may order a digital contrast mammography for a variety of situations, including those listed below.
- If you need breast cancer screening. CESM may be particularly useful in women at increased risk of developing breast cancer and in women with dense breast tissue.
- If it is necessary to evaluate any nodules found in the mammary glands during a physical examination. Contrast digital mammography helps detect breast cancers that cannot be seen on conventional mammograms, especially in women with dense breast tissue.
It is a mandatory tool in the diagnosis of breast diseases and provides the doctor with additional information to mammography. The addition of ultrasound to mammography improves the radiologist's ability to distinguish benign from suspicious breast cancer, thus reducing unnecessary biopsies, especially when breast radiography is dense. Also, ultrasound is a method of primary diagnosis in pregnant and lactating patients.
MRI or magnetic resonance imaging of the mammary glands with dynamic contrast enhancement is a highly sensitive method that has shown maximum information content in the following cases:
- Preoperative planning of the scope of surgical treatment for breast cancer.
- Exclusion of additional foci of breast cancer in the opposite gland.
- Difficult diagnostic cases, when there are discrepancies in the results of mammography, ultrasound and clinical examination.
- Chemotherapy treatment monitoring.
- Assessment of the integrity of implants.
- Diagnosis of postoperative changes in the mammary gland.
- Annual preventive examination of patients at high risk of developing breast cancer.
If necessary, invasive examination methods are used: fine-needle aspiration biopsy, thick-needle biopsy, vacuum aspiration biopsy, ductography.
Such studies are carried out under the control of ultrasound, X-ray or MRI and are used to determine the morphology of the tumor and the selection of individual therapy for the patient. Additional methods are also used to study blood (oncogenetics) for the carriage of mutated genes BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK 2, PTEN, p53, CDH-1.
Treatment of breast diseases
Today, almost any breast cancer detected at an early stage is treatable. The patient's treatment tactics are determined by the specialist individually. Clinic K+31 provides comprehensive treatment for breast cancer, including surgery and chemotherapy.
The volume of the operation directly depends on the size of the formation, the degree of malignancy and the presence or absence of metastases.
Medication therapies are also widely used, which include chemotherapy and hormone therapy.
We carry out chemotherapy treatment according to the recommendations of NCCN, ASCO, ESMO, using "original" drugs. Therefore, patients tolerate treatment comfortably.
In organ-preserving surgeries, when only a portion of the breast is removed, radiation therapy is performed after the surgery to kill additional cancer cells in the remaining breast tissue.