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Phlebology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the veins and varicose veins of the human limbs.

Types of phlebological diseases

Modern phlebology relates to diseases of the veins of the lower extremities of a person:

  • Varicose veins - a disease that leads to the expansion of superficial veins on the legs, impaired blood flow and circulatory failure (blood stasis).
  • Thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis - inflammation of the walls of the veins of the legs with the occurrence of thrombotic formations that impede blood flow in the limbs.
  • Phlebopathy is a complex violation of the functioning of the venous system of the lower extremities, leading to a decrease in venous tone.
  • Chronic venous insufficiency is a dangerous syndrome of impaired venous current and microcirculation of the blood, often accompanying varicose veins.
  • Trophic ulcers - inflamed arterial, post-thrombophlebitic, post-traumatic, diabetic, neurotrophic formations on the legs.

The causes of most varicose pathologies are weakness of the walls of the venous vessels and venous valves, the occurrence of blood clots, insufficient development of the leg muscles, pathological discharge of blood, and an increase in blood viscosity. As a result, thrombi, then varicose veins and, in more severe stages, trophic ulcers.


The main symptoms, which over time begin to manifest themselves more clearly, phlebologists include:

  • heaviness in the legs and muscle pain;
  • swelling of the legs in the evening;
  • the appearance of vascular "stars";
  • the appearance of a “venous” pattern and tuberous protrusions of the veins of a crimson / dark blue color;
  • cramps in the muscles of the legs;
  • dry skin of the legs, peeling and a change in pigmentation;
  • the appearance of pigmentation on the legs and / or ankles;
  • leg ulcers.

At more “acute” stages of varicose veins development, trophic ulcers appear on the legs, which tend to develop and increase. If you experience any of the symptoms of varicose veins, you should immediately consult a doctor.


Varicose pathologies affect up to 15% of the world's population. More often, these diseases are found in people of "office" professions, leading a sedentary and sedentary lifestyle, and in those who are upright for a long time.

The development of varicose veins is affected by heredity, excessive body weight, excessive load on the legs and uncomfortable shoes, frequent weight transfer and prolonged standing, smoking, pregnancy, as well as metabolic disorders, hormonal dysfunctions, diabetes mellitus and heart disease.


Varicose diseases of the lower extremities have similar symptoms, and diagnostic methods are also required. For diagnosis, apply:

  • Ultrasound of the venous system of the lower extremities
  • Doppler and duplex scanning
  • Venography
  • CT and MRI (including with contrast)

Treatment and Results

At the initial stage of varicose veins, conservative methods are most often used - compression and drug therapy, physiotherapeutic procedures, therapeutic exercises, laser and radiofrequency (ablation) coagulation of saphenous veins and sclerotherapy (cosmetic introduction of a sclerosant drug into the veins).

The advanced and acute forms of varicose veins require surgical intervention. In case of serious pathology, the following apply:

  • operations on safeno-femoral and safeno-popliteal anastomosis;
  • stripping (removal of the saphenous vein trunk);
  • removal of perforating discharge;
  • removal of the saphenous vein trunk with communicative vein garter (miniflebectomy and phlebectomy);
  • subfascial vein dissection
  • internal and external plasty of deep veins.


Prevention of varicose veins is aimed at restoring natural blood flow in the veins of the lower extremities, strengthening venous valves and muscle tone. To do this, apply:

  • Therapeutic diets;
  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle;
  • Rejection of bad habits;
  • Maintaining physical activity;
  • Physiotherapy;
  • Massage of the lower extremities.


All specialists
Inga Yakovlevna

Surgeon, phlebologist