The lens is a transparent convex avascular structure on both sides, a natural “lens” of the eye enclosed in a capsule, which is involved in the process of changing the shape of the lens. Thus, it provides focusing of the image we perceive. Any clouding of the lens is called a cataract and can lead to a decrease in visual acuity.
Types of Cataract
Cataracts are congenital and acquired. Congenital cataracts can be hereditary and occur due to intrauterine pathology. The most common cause of congenital cataracts in children are diseases of pregnant women: hypocalcemia, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, toxoplasmosis, viral infections (rubella).
The most common form of acquired cataract is age-related cataract, usually occurring in people whose age is over 50 years.
Some systemic diseases contribute to the development of acquired cataracts: diabetes mellitus, myotonic dystrophy, atopic dermatitis, type II neurofibromatosis.
Various eye diseases (uveitis, glaucoma, eye injuries, retinal detachment, some hereditary retinal dystrophies) lead to the development of secondary cataract.